36 Part I Chapter 2 4. Orthopedics, sports & traumatology [36, 37] • Periostitis, including shin splints, and thigh splints [38]. • Enthesopathies, such as plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis or bursitis. • Spondylolisthesis (acute or subacute) • Radiological occult stress-related fractures (e.g. scaphoid, tarsals) or nonspecific symptoms [39]. • Insufficiency fractures, including osteoporotic vertebral or occult fractures, sacral fracture, femoral head or neck fractures, tibial plateau fractures, tarsal or metatarsal fractures. • Septic loosening, mechanical complication, or synovitis of internal fixation (long bones or spine) or prosthesis (hip, knee, ankle, or shoulder) • Pseudoarthrosis (delayed union, non-union) • Periarticular heterotopic ossification • Viability of bone graft 5. Metabolic bone disease [40-42] • Hyperparathyroidism (primary and secondary) • Osteomalacia • Renal osteodystrophy • Rare skeletal manifestations of endocrine disorder, such as hyperthyroidism, and acromegaly. • Vitamin D deficiency 6. Pediatrics • Osteochondritis of the hip (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease) • Transient synovitis of the hip • Osteoid osteoma • Battered child syndrome • Mandibular condylar hyperplasia • Bone infarction (sickle cell disease, thalassemia) Bone scan may be indicated to explore unexplained symptoms 1. Subacute or chronic musculoskeletal or bone pain with normal clinical examination and radiographs • Arthralgia, monoarthritis, oligoarthritis, polyarthritis, localized or multifocal bone pain, or backache. 2. Further exploration of abnormal biochemical (e.g. phosphate or calcium metabolism) or radiological findings 3. Fever of unknown origin: exclusion of osteomyelitis.