95 Defining and measuring moral craftsmanship RESULTS In the first part of the results, we describe the development of the definition of MCS, in the second part, we present the conceptual elements of MCS and our mind map, including the categorization of those elements, and in Part 3 we provide insight into how we developed the questionnaire to measure MCS. Part 1: Development of a definition of MCS When looking at ‘craftsmanship’ in general, Sennett (2009) mentions how in any practice 1this means to ‘do a job well for its own sake’, in terms of ‘skill, commitment, and judgment’. Based on Sennett, Parker (2012, 2015) refers to MCS in literature, and he mentions how professionals often do not worry about moral problems, but simply get on with their job. He, therefore, emphasizes that a ‘professional committed to good practice is someone who takes problem-seeking seriously and sees the active seeking-out of moral and ethical problems as an important part of their commitment to moral craftsmanship’ (Parker, 2012, p. 126). Kunneman (2012) reflects on the moral characteristics of professionals who deliver ‘good work’, which he refers to as ‘normative professionalism’, which is described as the ‘process of developing and sustaining a critical and reflexive attitude toward normative content of professional knowledge and professional action, against the moral horizon of wider social and political values’. We took this definition as our starting point for an MCS definition. Kunneman (2012, p. 12) mentions the ‘inherent normativity of the professional, [..] understood in terms of the personal ethical and moral commitment of professionals to deliver ‘good work’ and relate to the needs and worries of patients, clients, and students’. According to Karssing (2000), organizations need to stimulate individuals to put the effort in making moral judgments regarding their behavior and their moral decision-making; the individuals are stimulated to become morally competent agents. It is Schön (1983) who – in the context of ‘reflection in action’ and ‘professional reflexivity’ – states professionals must show acceptance of a level of uncertainty that comes with the ‘messy’ and challenging problems they have to face in practice. 1 ‘Craftsmanship cuts a far wider swath than skilled manual labor; it serves the computer programmer, the doctor, and the artist; parenting improves when it is practiced as a skilled draft, as does citizenship.’ (Sennett, 2009, p.9) 4