92 Chapter 4 or concerning their leadership. Especially this relational aspect of the work context within prisons is essential when one wants to stimulate the ethical conduct of prison staff. Overall, the specific concept of MCS did not receive much attention in literature and empirical research. It can be seen in the work of Parker (2012, 2015), which we will refer to later in this study. To help improve the understanding of MCS for concrete work practices, we aim to develop the concept of MCS. Furthermore, there are no instruments to measure MCS or the other mentioned constructs. Therefore, the goal of this study is threefold: 1) to define moral craftsmanship using literature on related concepts, such as ‘normative professionalism’ and ‘moral competence’, 2) to explore and identify the conceptual elements of moral craftsmanship, and 3) to develop a questionnaire to measure moral craftsmanship. This is an explorative study, reflecting the first conceptual steps in developing a questionnaire to measure the MCS of professionals in empirical research. With this questionnaire, we hope to help further develop the options for measurement tools for the ethics of professionals. We aim to be able to measure professionals’ MCS in a single moment among various professionals in the prison context. Additionally, we wish that the questionnaire can also be used before and after a specific ethics-related intervention such as ethical case deliberation (Steinkamp & Gordijn, 2003), enabling measurement of the intervention’s contribution to various MCS elements of professionals. Background of the study Increasing numbers of incidents and high work pressure (FNV Overheid, 2017, 2020) led to the DCIA in 2017 initiating a new training program for prison staff focused on their craftsmanship. In DCIA documents (DCIA, 2016), craftsmanship is defined as ‘learning to optimally function in practical situations that transcend the textbook and routines’. The new training program strived to facilitate and encourage prison staff to reflect on their own actions and underlying motives. For the moral component of craftsmanship, DCIA includes that a craftsman needs to recognize and discuss moral dilemmas, and explore and recognize how differences of opinion can be addressed constructively through dialogue (DCIA, 2016). As part of the program, interventions as Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) have been implemented for prison staff since 2017. MCD offers a stepwise methodology to jointly reflect on moral challenges from practice (Van Dartel & Molewijk, 2014). DCIA wanted to explore how such interventions impact the MCS