58 Chapter 2 of prisons, further research is needed to evaluate the MCD sessions with prison staff and to see how MCD sessions contribute to their moral craftsmanship and support them in dealing with the moral challenges of prison work. CONCLUSION This study provides a thematic analysis of 154 personally experienced moral dilemmas of Dutch prison staff from all professional disciplines. Our findings show an overview of the themes of moral dilemmas in the workplace of prison staff. Findings represent a wide variety of main themes, including ‘working with prisoners’, ‘good employment practices, ‘addressing work climate’ and ‘deviating from protocols’. Moral dilemmas related to security, cooperation and deviating from procedures and the vision of superiors were most frequently experienced. Unexpectedly, moral dilemmas related to the rehabilitation-aim of prison work were underrepresented. Prison staff at all levels of the organization encounter moral dilemmas: apparently, moral dilemmas are inherent in all facets of prison work. The formulation of dilemmas showed how many moral dilemmas arose out of feelings of frustration. Often dilemmas were not expressed as an open moral question for a moral inquiry but were formulated using normative comments. Prison work regularly puts staff in situations where they question whether current procedures or policies are adequate, or wonder how to still act morally right in non-ideal circumstances. Often prison staff expressed certainty about knowing what the right action should be but felt restricted in their ‘freedom of action’. In order to further strengthen moral craftsmanship of both prison staff and the organization as a whole, we recommend a dialogical ethics approach when implementing programs for dealing with these moral dilemmas and themes.