57 Moral dilemmas of Dutch prison staff RECOMMENDATIONS Morally challenging situations in prison will remain and therefore deserve ongoing attention, both at the level of facilitating reflection among support staff in order to deal with moral dilemmas, and on the content level regarding the specific moral themes. Continuation of MCD sessions and building the expertise for facilitating these MCD sessions within the prison itself is important for safeguarding the moral competency of both staff and organization. A follow-up after MCD sessions is highly recommended to create impact that goes beyond a single MCD session. To help deepen understanding of all moral themes and encourage further steps toward a reflective organization, it is important to develop a roadmap together with an internal multidisciplinary ‘working group’ in which lessons-learned and future needs are monitored and fostered at the same time. Cases are shown to be highly context-dependent, which means that discussing and resolving specific moral dilemmas is more fruitful than providing general guidance in training sessions or focusing solely on codes of conduct for prison staff. To ensure prison staff feel supported in dealing with the morally challenging situations, prison locations can work on further implementation of ESS, such as MCD. It would be beneficial to further research how these moral dilemmas affect prison staff, both personally and professionally. Our observations about how dilemmas were formulated showed that in future MCD sessions a strong dialogical approach would be beneficial. It might help to train internal MCD facilitators for prison locations, to immediately facilitate MCD in urgent cases and to make sure themes and MCD sessions are followed up. The collected moral dilemmas can be used as illustration during (further developments of) ethics training, and to stimulate dialogue about how to reflect upon such situations. In general, skills for moral reflection and having open dialogues about moral challenges require practice. Continuous implementation of appropriate reflection tools, such as MCD sessions, might stimulate this ongoing practicing of joint dialogues and reflections. This study took place in the context of a broader study about the role of MCD to strengthen moral craftsmanship of prison staff. Various MCD evaluation studies, mainly in health care, have shown that MCD can strengthen the moral competency of MCD participants, the cooperation among multidisciplinary staff members, and the constructive handling of different viewpoints (Haan et al., 2018). In the specific context 2