Thesis

50 Chapter 2 work. In most dilemmas, staff question whether to comply with newly implemented policies when they feel they were not part of the deliberation process, e.g., regarding participating in a pilot with irregular working hours or the degree of punishment of prisoners following incidents. Subtheme ‘carrying out assignments’ presents dilemmas in which staff members are unsure about following orders of superiors. Should I still carry out the assignment given by the superior, even if I do not agree with the decision made? VI. Deviating from protocol The first subtheme ‘degree of humanity’ shows how working with the value of ‘humanity’ can lead to doubts about following standard procedures. This kind of dilemma is experienced at all organizational levels: from supervisor toward staff, from staff toward prisoners, but also regarding visitors of prisoners. The latter is remarkable since we did not encounter many visitor-related cases in other themes. Staff wonder how much leeway they have, especially when dealing with protocols. For example, should we frisk a visiting child? Are we allowed to discuss confidential information about a prisoner with his family members? Dilemmas involving deviation occur when standard procedures seem inadequate. For example, toward staff, when against the rules an advance on salary is granted. Possible deviations from protocol are mainly questioned in medical contexts, e.g., giving medication to a prisoner in an isolation cell, or in the procedure with recovering drug-addicted prisoners? The final subtheme of ‘tolerating’ arises when staff tolerates certain actions or situations, e.g., prisoners smoking near the labor area, and doubt whether it is justified, and if they should continue this practice or not. In other cases, prison staff experience a lack of clarity about existing rules or procedures and their limits. A small category of deviation-cases concerns situations in which staff deviated from protocol to avoid troublesome situations or commotion among prisoners. For example, not reporting a missing knife or drugs brought in by visitors. VII. Addressing work climate All cases of ‘addressing work climate’ consist of relationships with others. In the subtheme ‘stand up for rights’ prison staff experience pressure, from superiors or due to workload, and try to act on the basis of good self-care. It mainly concerns bottom-up cases, about not getting days off, or having too many tasks. The dilemmas reflect doubts about the level of freedom to (not) perform a task or about where to turn with complaints: supervisor, director, workers union? Cases in the subtheme of ‘work ethic’ are about whether to confront colleagues about their work ethic. Most dilemmas are team-based and address the question whether one can and should impose one’s own values on

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