Thesis

41 Moral dilemmas of Dutch prison staff of cases, fosters moral reasoning, and facilitates dialogue from various perspectives among participants (Stolper et al., 2016). A variety of conversation methods can be used. During this research, MCD facilitators used the ‘dilemma method’. The steps of this conversation method can be seen in Appendix 2. This was the preferred method due to its focus on the moral dilemma of situations (Stolper et al., 2014). In a moral dilemma, the context of a situation plays a crucial role in considerations about what a right action should be based on (Widdershoven, Molewijk, et al., 2009). Between permissible and objectionable acts there is a broad ‘grey area’ where people must find their own way, through reflection (Musschenga, 2004, p. 180). MCD is an instrument that ensures space to present all types of morally challenging situations, not just doubts about excesses or wrongdoings. It can help deepen understanding and explore what could be a ‘morally right’ act in that specific situation (Molewijk et al., 2008). Participants are stimulated to develop a dialogical attitude of mutual respect, ask open questions, and postpone judgements. The dialogue thus functions as an instrument toward a mutual learning process and fruitful moral reflections (Weidema, 2014). Outcomes of MCD sessions vary from individual and personal development and collective learning, with impact on team cooperation, organizational and policy changes, to concrete actions immediately following an MCD session (De Snoo-Trimp et al., 2018). METHODS Participants and procedure For this qualitative study we followed 22 teams in three Dutch prisons (Nieuwegein, Zwaag and Leeuwarden), ranging from 6 to 10 teams per location. Between September 2017 and February 2020 teams participated in a total of 170 MCD sessions. The selection of DCIA locations and involved teams was made by the Educational Institute in consultation with local team managers and based on the locations’ registered preferences in the general training program. The Educational Institute is responsible for the implementation of MCD at DCIA locations. As researchers, in selecting the teams that participated, we only emphasized our preference for a broad representation of the professional disciplines within the organization. The professions represented in the selected teams can be seen in Appendix 1. Since the MCD sessions were team-based we did not gather data about the individuals per session. All teammembers who were present participated in the MCD sessions, and most sessions were conducted without the team-manager being present. The team-manager only joined at the request of the team. Participating teams attended 2

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