26 Chapter 1 Figure 2. Data collection per location, of the pre- and post-measurements with the MCSQ *These locations closed down in the summer of 2018, hence, our research stopped earlier than originally planned RESEARCH METHODS This study used various research methods. Table 2 shows an overview per Chapter. More detailed explanations of the methods can be found in the related Chapters. In the article concerning the moral dilemmas of prison staff (RQ 1, Chapter 2) we aimed to give a voice to the prison staff. Therefore, we stayed as close as possible to the respondents’ words; hence, we used ‘conventional content analysis’ approach (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Additionally, to summarize the variation and regularities in the data found, we used a thematic content analysis (Green & Thorogood, 2013). For the evaluation of MCD (RQ 2, Ch.3) and the experienced outcomes (RQ 5, CH.6) we used embedded mixed methods (Creswell, 2014, p. 44). The combined data of quantitative and qualitative analyses enrich each other and provide an insightful understanding of the data. This is needed for the responsive approach we aim to use during the implementation of MCD (Abma, 2005). For our explorative approach on RQ 3 (Ch.4) an iterative process was performed by all authors actively looking for consensus on the definition and elements of MCS. The conceptual elements found were categorized by a thematic content analysis (Green & Thorogood, 2013). We tested our developed questionnaire via think-aloud interviews (Mcdonald et al., 2012), to improve its usability and content validity. Our self-developed questionnaire was used to address RQ 4 (Ch.5) about the impact of MCD on moral craftsmanship. We performed many types of quantitative analyses: multivariate analyses, ANOVA tests, exploratory factor analysis, Chi-squared test, independent sample t-test, and a multiple regression. Additionally, we conducted mid-term interviews, varying in duration between 30-60 minutes, with participants (n=19) and local managers or directors (n=12), representing all involved teams and locations of the intervention group.