Thesis

190 Chapter 7 edition of the MCSQ still needs to be further validated. In the current version, exploratory factor analyses did not result in specific clusters of items, which could be valuable in future research with the MCSQ. Overall, more research is needed on the meaning and elements of MCS, the development of a validated MSCQ 2.0, and further field-testing the MCSQ, in order to, in the end, to learn more about the impact of MCD. Normative analyses of organization-wide moral issues Our thematic analyses of moral dilemmas (Ch.2) provided insights that could result in the further investigation of some moral topics at DCIA, at a policy and organizational level. First, some specific, individual cases need more in-depth normative analysis to ensure DCIA can take a more substantiated stance toward dilemmas. For example, Chapter 2 described a case with an expressed wish for euthanasia of a prisoner who stated having a ‘hopeless existence’ in prison with no prospect of improvement (in Dutch: ‘uitzichtloos bestaan’). Even a single MCD session can impact organizational learning and may thereby create policy changes. Second, often-discussed moral dilemmas showed coherence or were experienced by many staff nationwide. In Chapter 2 the moral dilemmas were often shown to be organization-wide issues. It can be helpful to continuously analyze the moral dilemmas of prison staff at several DCIA locations, to keep a close eye on tendencies of organization-wide challenges. Further normative analyses of such cases could help prison staff understand the ethical issues of prison work. Of course, moral dilemmas remain context dependent and need focused attention and reflection in practice. However, finding out more about normative considerations on often experienced cases by prison staff might be helpful. Therefore, DCIA could consider building on morisprudence: systematically collecting insights and knowledge on specific morally challenging situations of a profession (Van Dartel & Molewijk, 2014, p. 26; Wirtz & Karssing, 2015), to help reflections on future cases. Morisprudence involves an ongoing formulation of moral judgments across cases encountered within the organization (Kok et al., 2022) and an ‘ongoing report of morally significant likenesses and differences across cases’ (Jonsen, 1986; Toulmin, 1988). It can be done, e.g., by recording insights and outcomes from MCD sessions (Kok et al., 2022; Molewijk, 2022), which afterward can be consulted, at least by the participants of that MCD (Van Dartel & Molewijk, 2014, p. 268). Only if all participants agree, the insights could be used – when anonymized – organization wide. This can stimulate an ongoing moral learning process.

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