189 General discussion Empirical research on resistance and empowerment This discussion chapter has revealed a need for more research onMCD regarding resistance and empowerment (Reflections 1 and 2). Based on the explained pragmatic hermeneutic view, we could and ought to learn from the less positive views or experiences of MCD participants. There is still more to be known on this topic; therefore, I wish to encourage new research to explore the reasons for resistance toward the implementation and various structures and forms of ESS. This should investigate the extent to which a you can and should adjust a method of ESS to better fit the participants from a specific context. Furthermore, such research should include normative questions that need answering on whether resistance can sometimes be a reason to stop or not start a project with ESS or MCD. Or, if we see ethical reflections as a fundamental part of almost all professions instead of part of a project, the question emerges whether we ought to address resistance constructively instead of giving into resistance by stopping with offering ethics support. Additionally, the possible empowering effect of ESS deserves more attention in future research. This study showed some elements of empowering processes of MCD participants but did not have a research design suitable to reach an in-depth understanding of the topic. A better exploration is needed of what empowerment entails and in which elements prison staff wishes to be supported. Ideally, stakeholders from practice co-determine what kind of organizational learning they prefer (Molewijk, 2022; Schildmann et al., 2013). Furthermore, more exchanges of experiences with ESS or MCD between prison locations or other institutions can create learning communities to help each other to integrate it into standard work practices. Finally, since it is clear from current research that prison staff deal with high stress levels, role conflicts, and moral dilemmas, prison staff deserve more attention in international research. Specifically for ESS, more research could be done on the moral distress and resilience of prison staff, to find out what helps prison staff be ‘morally fit’ during challenging practices. Further validation of the MCSQ We created a questionnaire focused on the measurement of MCS (Ch.4), which we could test as a pre-and post-measurement of MCD sessions, thereby testing the impact of MCD on the MCS of prison staff (Ch.5). Our testing of users’ experiences with the MCSQ improved its usability and content validity; however, several parts of our study still require further developmental steps. For example, a Delphi study on the concept of moral craftsmanship would be interesting to seek further improvement of and consensus among experts of the definition and conceptual elements of MCS. Furthermore, the first 7