187 General discussion Appreciation of moral courage Stating to value doubt and related reflections of staff, as DCIA did in their report (2016), is not enough. Within the prison context, conditions are needed that allow staff to dare to be open, address issues, ask questions, et cetera. A structural implementation of ESS, specifically MCD, can help achieve a culture that offers such conditions in an organization. In our results, MCD proved able to create an open and safe space for dialogue and to empower prison staff. Opening up and daring to address matters asks for moral courage of prison staff (Reflection 2). Such courage is about bridging the gap between morally relevant insights and acting on those insights to do good in practice, or addressing it to others to influence a situation for the better (Karssing, 2011, p. 234). The courage to stand for one’s values is integral to developing moral competence (Bosch &Wortel, 2009, p. 478). When one’s actions do not conform to one’s judgment of what the right action is, there is a ‘judgment-action gap’ (Blasi, 1983). A learning effect can occur through practicing with and reflecting on moral dilemmas (Kremer et al., 2017, p. 115). During MCD, an individual can thus be helped to more firmly construct the moral competence of ‘courage’. Additionally, valuing joint reflections and openness about ‘dissenting voices’ or ‘contradictions in views’ is needed. By putting different perspectives on the table, there is a better chance of arriving at morally sound practices since such views provoke joint investigations that are needed to achieve deeper insights and understanding. A staff member who dares to speak differently than others shows courage and encourages moral reflection. Courage is necessary since, among other things, the professional puts the relationship with others on the line (Pool, 2021, p. 53). The ‘unity’ in teams is deeply cherished by prison staff, since they depend on good working relationships for their safety. The person who dares to test such a relationship by opening up about a contradiction in views shows courage. The typical way of working must sometimes be tested and questioned internally to arrive at the right course of action. As Chapter 3 showed, opening up and discussing differences during MCD even resulted in more respect among colleagues. Chapter 6 showed MCD created ‘more unity in variety’ within the participating teams. It is often thought that contradictions slow down practices, but as Pool (2021, p. 60) argues, having room for contradictions in views can create powerful accelerations of insights. Continuous monitoring and evaluation of ethics support services The continuous attention toward quality in the implementation of MCD, the interaction with ever-changing conditions within the organization, and the need to listen to the wishes of staff also require continuous monitoring and evaluation of the ethics support 7