Thesis

185 General discussion ownership of interventions such as MCD by all stakeholders. It would be helpful if the form and conversation method of the offered type of ESS is more strongly based on the group’s interest, context, and background; therefore, implementation choices could be differentiated per group. However, as Weidema states (2014, p. 194), the shared ownership of MCD does not mean attendance cannot be made mandatory, as that is sometimes temporarily needed to create proper conditions for MCD. General work pressure tends to stand in the way of initiatives to ask for (ethics) support, even when the need for it is felt. Furthermore, staff often need to learn how and to whom to address their request for support. Practice has shown that there is often a ‘shortage of requests for ethics support’ (Hartman, 2020, p. 207). It is up to the prison management to facilitate and support structures required for staff to know that ESS is available and that staff feels comfortable using it. When building on a practice where moral reflection is part of the standard structures, eventually, staff would no longer see MCD as mandatory. Structural plans for Ethics Support Services for prison staff Moving toward a more reflective organization takes more than implementing the 10 MCD sessions per team at some prison locations, as was done during this research period. DCIA provided many preconditions during this research for proper implementation of MCD, such as available resources (money and time) and trained facilitators. Although the craftsmanship training program, including the researchers’ MCD sessions, had funding for multiple years, it was dependent on temporary national financing from the DCIA headquarters. Based on our research results, continuation of MCD shows to be worthwhile with prison staff as participants. At DCIA, to continue creating impact by MCD, a more structural approach is needed to steer toward a more reflective organization and have prison staff pay attention to moral decision-making. Now that our research has come to an end – with a style of research that helped to guide the implementation and created structures for MCD – involved stakeholders should step up to continue implementing MCD at DCIA. A more structural approach would also require more attention to ethics and moral reflection in the basic training of (new) prison staff and a long-term plan with structural resources for ESS for all (currently working) prison staff. Furthermore, a more ‘integrative approach’ (Hartman, 2020) seems needed. Hence, training and instruments addressing MCS should be offered for prison staff at different places and various moments. Such 7

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