Thesis

179 General discussion did not experience MCD), staff stated they engaged more with their manager when that manager did something the staff member believed was not right. At the same time, as mentioned above, some MCD participants felt their insights could not result in practice improvements based on their lack of influence in the organization. As Walker (2007) mentions, the right responsibilities must lie with the right people. A manager has a different role, level of influence, responsibility, and accountability than executive staff; that will not change. However, a managerial decision that influences staff can and often should be based on understanding related viewpoints or experiences from executive staff, and vice versa. Overall, empowering staff would mean becoming more aware of responsibilities, acting on them, and having the competence and courage to speak up to others who seem not to handle their responsibility correctly. The above results showed MCD is able to foster such elements. However, according to Freire, ‘empowerment comes from people themselves; it is not given to them’ (Schiavo & Moreira, 2005). People should decide what is empowering and what type of intervention would benefit them. A top-down implementation of MCD by DCIA can be counterproductive when aiming for an empowering effect. Chapter 3 showed that in some teams, not all members felt heard in MCD implementation choices. Additionally, the MCD sessions in this research had no predetermined theme. Instead, the staff could address their dilemmas and decide which case would be further discussed during MCD. By providing this room for their own cases and researching self-perceived moral dilemmas, we intended to give a voice to prison staff. This can help staff feel that their issues matter and are worth looking into. As a prison staff member recently mentioned to me it is ‘comforting to know that someone is researching this topic’ since such research acknowledges that others (the DCIA headquarters and the researchers) see their struggles and are looking into it. Such research had not been done before internationally. Overall, the contrast between what staff is used to by working in the prison setting (protocols, hierarchy, time constraints, work pressures, et cetera) and the style of ‘working’ during an MCD (taking time, the dialogical style, the equality of all participants during MCD, et cetera) can be perceived as quite the opposite. Hence, for MCD to ‘land well’ with staff in this prison context, it is crucial to pay extra attention to how MCD can help to meet staff needs in this particular context. Paying attention to the resistance of participants (Reflection 1) and the feeling of the powerlessness of staff involved in the 7

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