Thesis

168 Chapter 7 2020; Janssens et al., 2015), and often MCD was only evaluated per single session. Our study presented a regulated design with a team-based series of MCD sessions, which provided good conditions for additional analyses regarding the evaluation of MCD. For example, we studied changes in evaluation scores over time: evaluation scores staying relatively stable during the series. Only the sessions in the middle of the MCD series received slightly lower evaluation scores than the first and last sessions. The overall positive evaluations support the vision of DCIA that moral reflection, and MCD, hold value for the organization and its staff. Part B The second part of the thesis, Chapters 4 and 5, showed insights into the meaning of moral craftsmanship (MCS) and the development and use of a questionnaire to measure moral craftsmanship. The latter gave us an opportunity to measure the impact of MCD on MCS. Meaning and measurement of moral craftsmanship The concept of MCS was not yet clearly defined in literature or operationalized in a questionnaire. Chapter 4 presented a newly formulated definition of MCS based on elements of existing literature: Moral craftsmanship: the development of an open and reflexive attitude toward what it means to act good in complex situations, and the ability and skills to put this into practice. Moral judgments and actions are always considered in relation to other stakeholders, one’s own profession, the organization, and society as a whole. A moral craftsman acknowledges the moral uncertainty and the different perspectives inherently present in practice and is committed to dealing with it in a constructive and responsible manner. We identified relevant conceptual elements involved in MCS on three levels. First, individual elements about a) cognition, with the elements of moral awareness, moral reasoning, and moral judgment; b) attitude, with moral motivation and courage, moral sensitivity and tolerance, and moral responsibility and accountability; and c) action, with attention to moral actions and intentions. Second, team elements included the need for dialogue and openness, constructive evaluation, and team learning. Last, specifically for superiors we added moral leadership, systematic and efficient morality, an open, supportive, and stimulating attitude toward staff, and an exemplary role in the organization.

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