15 General introduction Hoven & Kole, 2015, p. 20). For over two decades MCD has been implemented, primarily, in health care institutions (Bartholdson et al., 2014; Dauwerse et al., 2014; Lillemoen & Pedersen, 2015), but in recent years it has increasingly received attention in other contexts, such as in the military (Van Baarle, 2018) or counterterrorism (Kowalski, 2020). Introduction Case presentation Formulation of the dilemma Clarifying the case through elucidating questions Collecting of involved perspectives, values and norms Brainstorm of alternative courses of action Individually argued considerations Examining similarities and differences Conclusions and plan for follow-up actions Wrap-up and evaluation Figure 1. The steps of the dilemma method for MCD at DCIA (Stolper et al., 2016) Theoretical viewpoints of MCD MCD is inspired by hermeneutic, dialogical, and pragmatic approaches to ethics (support). These approaches focus on learning from experiences, achieved through a joint dialogue in which different perspectives and insights are integrated (Molewijk, Abma, et al., 2008). Based on a hermeneutic approach, MCD emerged from the view that understanding in general and especially in moral learning starts from a focus on concrete situations and emerges from experiences in practical contexts (Widdershoven & Molewijk, 2010). The hermeneutic approach presupposes that there is no objective truth or universal answer to what constitutes right courses of action. Instead, we experience and interpret situations in a context-specific way, and we can learn from each other’s perspectives on situations. Viewpoints are based on time, location, the people involved, and the previous experiences of the person interpreting the situation. In the effort to make the best out of challenging conditions, an essential element is understanding that one 1