Thesis

14 Chapter 1 on work since, as DCIA stated, reflection is seen as a precondition for a learning process. Overall, the training program on craftsmanship included many types of training; for example, directed at reflection in general, such as their instrument called ‘Talking about your profession’ (in Dutch: ‘Praten over je vak’) (DCIA Educational Institute, 2017). One instrument was introduced with an explicit focus on the development of moral awareness and reflection of staff: Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) (DCIA Education Institute, 2017). This thesis focuses specifically on the use of MCD within the general craftsmanship training program. MORAL CASE DELIBERATION Reflection, in general, is the process of getting insights into the rationale for, and implementation of, actions within (professional) situations (Groen, 2006, p. 60). The instrument of MCD implemented by DCIA is focused on the reflection on situations with moral components, where conflicting values raise doubts regarding the right action (Maclagan, 2003). Moral reflection can be seen as studying the reasons behind our moral decisions (Larmore, 2010). MCD can help professionals to reflect on and deal with moral dilemmas, doubts, and challenges they encounter (De Bree & Veening, 2012). MCD focuses on reflective group learning; by following a stepwise procedure and by means of a dialogue (Van den Hoven & Kole, 2015). MCD offers several optional conversation methods (Steinkamp & Gordijn, 2003), of which the dilemma method is used at DCIA. A short version of the steps of this conversation method is shown in Figure 1, a more detailed version in Appendix 2. As the name implies, this conversation method contains specific steps that strongly focus on identifying and discussing moral dilemmas. Moral dilemmas show situations in which possible courses of action will always have adverse consequences and the options are not feasible to apply simultaneously (Stolper et al., 2016). The facilitator of an MCD session (Stolper et al., 2015) does not give content-driven advice during MCD; instead, they foster the dialogue between participants and stimulate moral reasoning and the learning process of participants (Stolper et al., 2016). During MCD, the facilitator helps participants resist the appeal of moving toward ‘quick fixes’ and ‘rushed solutions’ based on less thoughtful interpretations of the situation at hand. Instead, during MCD, ‘slow thinking’ is promoted, entailing a conscious slowing down and an invitation to reflect extensively on the topic, also called ‘suspended judgment’. Intuitive judgments or presuppositions are thus critically examined, allowing more systematic reflection than most participants are accustomed to in daily practice (Van den

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