151 Experienced outcomes of MCD team spirit. Some even mentioned a safer environment within the team after MCD. Most experienced a stronger mutual connection, or as one participant said ‘We trust each other and each other’s decisiveness. We all feel we can continue on this path together’. The fifth category self-development and empowerment shows a supporting role of MCD in helping individuals deal with emotions or better understand the role of emotions. Multiple participants mentioned an increased self-awareness or more self-control, e.g., by learning about ‘hidden emotions that still turn out to be present’ or because ‘I know now how to engage in the conversation without getting caught up in my irritation’. MCD sometimes helps to process difficult situations, or as one participant mentioned ‘a feeling of guilt disappeared’. One participant said ‘it helped to see that it can happen to anyone’. Often prison staff indicated a feeling of being acknowledged, e.g., by being heard. Many participants mentioned outcomes that reflect individual prison staff being empowered by MCD. As one participant said: ‘I feel more confident about this subject’, and another expressed: ‘I feel more secure about my rights and duties’. Others stated that MCD helped them feel stronger or more confident in general, e.g., ‘standing behind my decisions and trusting myself’ or ‘asserting your opinion more often’. Often prison staff feel more comfortable voicing their opinions after MCD: ‘dare to ask questions’, to ‘stand up for myself’ or to ‘show more loyalty to myself’. A specific aspect of this category is a raised awareness among prison staff of the importance of better selfcare and self-protection, e.g., regarding their ‘assertiveness and self-protection not to become overworked’ or to ‘think more about my own physical safety’. Often prison staff mentioned that MCD taught them to a) give themselves more time (e.g., for rest, reflection, informal collegial conversations) and b) indicate limitations more clearly to others (e.g., limitations regarding task responsibility). In the sixth category moral awareness, prison staff indicated they gained such awareness through MCD. They learned that every situation with moral dilemmas has downsides and consequences and requires a context-dependent approach. Some MCD participants said that they had learned about the influence of values in daily practice, either personal or organizational, and gained a better understanding of those values. Prison staff became more aware and gained a better understanding of their dilemmas, and realized how such moral challenges are part of their practice. Moreover, hearing about the dilemmas of others gave participants a broader view of the moral challenges that occur within the organization. 6