150 Chapter 6 In the second category case-related actions, participants indicate an increased clarity. Most frequently mentioned are new insights from MCD for their practice, with agreedupon plans about who takes action on what. Often participants expressed that ‘we now know how to achieve and implement improvements or changes’, or: ‘I can proceed in a more nuanced way’. Participants report increased awareness about the need to take responsibility in creating improvements. Furthermore, case-related insights help staff in future situations, or as one participant said ‘I will think of these offered solutions in similar situations in the future’. Sometimes staff mentioned the agreement that the case needs further exploration after MCD, or further discussion in regular team meetings or with their supervisor, director or other departments; e.g., in a case in which there was a need to ‘reopen the discussion on the related guideline/protocol’. In some instances, MCD yielded the insight to ‘get the director involved more quickly in a similar situation’. In the third category communication and dialogue participants indicate an improvement between colleagues. They mentioned, e.g., raising issues more often, speaking up more often, seeking more help from each other when solving difficulties, sharing responsibilities with colleagues more rapidly, and trying to pause and reflect more often when making decisions. Prison staff stated they had learned fromMCD how vital openness and proper communication are for their practice, e.g., the relevance of ‘addressing unacceptable behavior sooner’. Furthermore, participants mentioned that their dialogical skills had improved through MCD. However, they also stated a need for further development of those skills for themselves and their colleagues. According to MCD participants, prison staff should a) listen more and better to others and postpone judgments while listening, and b) ask more (neutral and open) questions. Prison staff intend to give more room to other opinions or dissenting views of colleagues. One person said: ‘I am working on my impatience, learning to initiate dialogue instead of discussion’. Another participant indicated to ‘ask for reasons instead of giving orders more often’. The fourth category MCD results in a strengthened mutual understanding and team spirit, e.g., illustrated by improved recognition of each other’s dilemmas. Furthermore, participants stated a better insight into each other’s points of view, resulting in more mutual respect. MCD created more ‘unity in variety’ within teams of prison staff; staff came to understand the importance of exchanging views, which resulted in more unity. MCD helps prison staff better understand the points of concern in the organization and how their issues often affect others. Prison staff reported an improvement in communication and how this contributed to a better understanding of colleagues; hence, MCD improves