Thesis

107 Defining and measuring moral craftsmanship Based on the conceptual ideas on MCS, we developed the MCSQ. We want to emphasize this is the 1.0 version of this measurement tool. Our questionnaire has the potential to not only measure the MCS of individuals in organizations at one particular moment, but also to measure any development in MCS by repeating the measurement over a period of time. And by having a group of participants fill it in before and after a series of a moral intervention, the MCSQ can be used to carry out an impact study. In our project this has been tested during an empirical study on a series of Moral Case Deliberations with Dutch prison staff (forthcoming). To make the MCSQ applicable for more studies, the current version of the MCSQ needs to be further validated. To further enhance the value of the MCSQ, it could be adapted to other (professional or organizational) contexts, by leaving out some specific items or phrases that characterize the DCIA context, e.g., the relationship with prisoners. Those items were developed based on the request made by the DCIA, which funded this research. After such an adaptation, the MCSQ can also be tested in other professional contexts. Some conceptual elements of MCS were not directly included in the MCSQ. This mainly concerns leadership-items, as there are effective questionnaires on moral leadership, e.g., Yukl et al. (2013). If moral leadership is the focus of research, one could use an existing questionnaire. However, in our opinion, it is justifiable to ask more from a moral craftsman who also supervises others; we could not disregard leadership either; more elements of MCS are involved, such as being a role model (DCIA Educational Institute, 2014). We did not include broad organizational elements in our mind map or the MCSQ organization items, as this is beyond the scope of this study, i.e., defining the concept of moral craftsmanship. However, an organization ideally provides conditions and a suitable context for a moral craftsman to blossom. Interventions focused on developing moral competencies (for example, Ethical Support Services, such as MCD) can be seen as tools to support professionals in exploring and creating their moral ideas and actions. However, such interventions are not the end or the goal. The process and development of MCS in an organization needs the attention of all involved. As Sennett mentions, this process is not linear but has many obstacles to which the professional (and the organization) needs to relate. Sennett (2009) states that the ‘purpose of tools’ is not to be a final end, but to help the craftsman in the process of creating and exploring. 4

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