106 Chapter 4 concept of MSC. Apart from Parker (2012, 2015), there was not much direct attention in literature for the conceptual elements of MCS, and no clear definition with consensus exists about what MCS consists of. Eventually, to add more moral components to existing ideas about craftsmanship, we developed a definition of MCS. For this definition, we were partly inspired by the ideas of Kunneman on ‘normative professionalism’. We had reasons to add elements to his views, since we think the concept of MCS goes beyond his definition of normative professionalism as the ‘development and sustaining of an attitude’. We expect more from a moral craftsman than an attitude, i.e, actual actions, cognitive processes, one’s role as leader/supervisor et cetera. In his work on craftsmanship, Sennett (2009) includes ideas about skill and commitment, reflecting a view that encompasses more than just attitude. Furthermore, the definition of normative professionalism is not always formulated clearly enough to be applicable in practice; e.g., he mentions that normative professionalism should always be positioned ‘against the moral horizon of political and societal values’ (Kunneman, 2012, p. 16). This shows an abstract use of concepts and terms. We wanted to create a concept applicable in all settings and all contexts. In contrast, Kunneman’s version seems to be based on the relationship between professional and client/patient (Van Ewijk & Kunneman, 2013), emphasizing the care context too strongly. Craftsmanship refers to the practice of any type of work; the term stresses the presence of some form of competence or skill or developing them in your practice. In the development of our mind map of the conceptual elements of MCS, the individual elements show a large overlap with the concept of ‘moral competency’, as described by – among others – Karssing (2000) or Lind (2005).4 Literature on moral competency tends to focus mainly on cognitive and individual elements. We look at MCS in a broader sense, for example by adding the attitude and actions of individuals and including team and leadership elements. Being a moral craftsman as a leader/supervisor goes beyond the moral competences of the individual (the leader); leadership requires specific additional MCS elements, such as being a role model or facilitating the moral learning process among staff et cetera. 4 Karssing (2000, p. 39) defines it as: ‘the ability and willingness to execute one’s task effectively and carefully, taking into account all the pertinent interests, based on a reasonable judgment of the relevant facts.’ And Lind (2005) mentions how moral competence is the ability to judge arguments by their moral quality rather than other attributes (e.g., opinion agreement).