Thesis

102 Chapter 4 Questionnaire items related to the individual level of conceptual elements The MCSQ domain of ‘values and norms’ correspond with the individual cognitive elements in Figure 1, and can be linked to the element of ‘moral awareness’. In this domain we placed items regarding the awareness of one’s values and norms based on the related scale in the Moral Competence Questionnaire (MCQ) (Oprins et al., 2011). We added similar items regarding the values and norms of close colleagues, and the organization as a whole. In the first round of adaptation, additional domains were included regarding ‘awareness of boundaries’ and ‘awareness of moral situations’. Too many items were excluded to keep ‘awareness of boundaries’ as a separate domain. In our added domain ‘awareness’, we included items – inspired by MCQ item 13 (Oprins et al., 2011) – that ask whether professionals notice emotions when something goes against their values and norms. This could show awareness of one’s moral boundaries. The domain covering ‘awareness of the possible moral dimensions of situations’ is not included; the risk of socially desired responses to related items was expected to be too high. Instead, we added open questions (see Appendix 6) asking respondents to describe a challenging situation at their work in which they were not sure what was the right thing to do. Their responses can be analyzed to see how they describe a moral situation and more specifically, what types of situations they mention. Based on the strong overlap noted in these items in the second adaptation round, the elements of reasoning and judgment were combined in one domain (‘Judgment and reasoning’). This domain contains eight items that reflect conceptual elements needed to reach conclusions in one’s mind. We included an item about whether one would be quick in making a judgment, and if one can easily separate facts from opinions and feelings (inspired by the research on prison staff by (Van Houwelingen et al., 2015). Other items show the need for taking different perspectives, including attention to other people, related consequences, and alternative options. To show how current literature influenced us: an item about taking time to reflect was inspired by Schippers et al. (2005). The conceptual elements of ‘moral attitude’ did not end up as a distinct domain in the questionnaire. Instead, we started with domains called ‘attitude’ or ‘tolerance and responsibility’. However, such terms would give a high probability of socially desired responses. We placed most attitude-related items in the newly named domains of ‘looking back’ and ‘interactions’. In the domain ‘looking back’, items refer to moral responsibility and accountability elements. And the domain of ‘interactions’ includes items regarding responsibility; but it also addresses moral tolerance. Moreover, some other domains also include items related to moral attitude. For example, in the domain ‘consulting others’

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