100 Chapter 4 Leadership elements of MCS For managers, supervisors, department heads and directors, we add leadership elements to moral craftsmanship. (Rossouw, 2002)3 mentions ‘managerial competences’ in morality, which include 1) an understanding of the moral opportunities and challenges of the organization (systemic morality), 2) the ability to turn moral considerations and concerns into actual changes in the practice of the organization (moral efficiency), and 3) the capacity to demonstrate moral vision and support to employees (moral leadership). A moral craftsman in a leadership position needs to enable the conversation about basic values of work, and thereby help to translate those values of the organization into actual work practices (DCIA Educational Institute, 2014). A manager needs to vocalize and demonstrate that reflection, ethics and integrity are important aspects of the job. For example, the manager could openly mention why there are moral reasons for doing things differently than, e.g., protocol dictates, and express that such decisions are not always easy to make (Yukl et al., 2013). In addition, a manager should support and stimulate or facilitate employees to act morally – especially to openly discuss moral doubts – in their work practice. Moreover, a moral leader sets a good example in their own actions (‘exemplary behavior’), in reflecting on those actions, and in being open about the why behind the action: ‘practice what you preach’ (DCIA Educational Institute, 2014). Part 3: Development of an instrument to measure MCS We developed a first version of a questionnaire to help measure the degree of MCS of professionals in organizations. Some existing questionnaires contained many items with academically formulated or ethically loaded terms, for example, the ‘Ethical Leadership Questionnaire’ (ELQ by Yukl et al., 2013). Such items were solely used as an inspiration for our new questionnaire or were reformulated. We intended to minimize the use of such ‘heavy’ terms, as our target population mainly consisted of employees who only had a practice-based educational background and had no experience in explicit ethical reflections. Many elements from our mind map on MCS (Part 2 of the results) required us to formulate new items. After eight rounds of adaptations, we narrowed down the first 143-item version of the MCS-Questionnaire (MSCQ) to a final version with 70 items. During the development 3 Rossouw (2002) mentions the categories of cognitive, behavioral and managerial competences. The latter also shows ‘instrumental morality’ as the ability to turn morality into a strategic asset for the profession. However, it is unclear to us what this means exactly, and we therefore did not add this to our leadership elements.