Thesis

99 Defining and measuring moral craftsmanship and subsequently to be willing to account for one’s actions, to oneself, and others (accountability) (Oprins et al., 2011). One needs to consider what one has to do to be able to face the consequences of actions and deal with the consequences conscientiously. Furthermore, in the third individual element (action), instead of only thoughts or attitudes, the actual personal moral actions one demonstrates also matter. What actions one commits to. Moral action means to act in accordance with one’s judgment in a morally responsible manner (Oprins et al., 2011). This not only involves how one acts but also how one intends to act. Without the motivation to act upon one’s moral judgments, there could be a risk that a craftsman shows, e.g., ‘rule-based behavior’ (Falender & Shafranske, 2007). Team elements of MCS The literature search also generated conceptual elements of importance for a craftsman to act morally when operating within a team. How the individual reflects and acts within a team is impacted by the team as a whole and vice versa. Within teams, it is essential to have joint and open conversations about the moral aspects of the different courses of action in a moral situation (Oprins et al., 2011). This starts with the dialogical skills of team members, which involve asking each other questions and making one’s considerations subject of discussion (DCIA Educational Institute, 2014). A precondition to being able to jointly explore this openness and reflectivity about moral aspects is the ‘psychological safety’ of the team (Van Baarle et al., 2019). In other words, you must feel safe enough (e.g., regarding how the team, managers and the organization treat you and your peers) to ask questions, express doubts, or provoke joint reflection. At the same time, when they feel comfortable in a team, team members must avoid ‘in-out-group-thinking’ in which ‘dehumanization of the outgroup can occur’ (Hogg & Turner, 1985; Tileagă, 2007). DCIA documents (DCIA Educational Institute, 2014) mention the importance, especially when working with prisoners, of preventing the occurrence of this ‘detachment’. Additionally, MCS in teams requires the will and ability of the team and the organization to learn and evaluate together, but also the space to acknowledge when something has not gone well (Schippers et al., 2005). This collaborative learning process is crucial for the individual and the team to develop their MCS. It requires the intention to improve situations together, and to discuss constructively whether the right thing has been done (Kellermanns et al., 2008). Being able to disagree with each other is part of this constructive approach. It is important to keep not the person who puts forward the perspective, but the perspective itself in the spotlight. 4

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