Thesis

98 Chapter 4 Individual elements of MCS The level of individual elements of MCS can be subdivided into individual’s cognition, attitude, and actions. For cognition, we distinguish the conceptual elements of moral awareness, moral reasoning, and moral judgment. A moral craftsman should demonstrate moral awareness by being aware of 1) values and norms, and 2) possible moral dimensions of situations. The first involves awareness of one’s own values and standards (Bosch & Wortel, 2009; Kunneman, 2012). Based on our document study, we add being aware of the norms and values of the organization or institution. Being aware of the moral dimension of situations means recognizing and acknowledge relevant moral components of situations (Callahan, 1980; Rossouw, 2002). This requires ‘moral imagination’: the ability to perceive a moral point of view or to see the moral story of a situation (Callahan, 1980). For moral reasoning, one needs to take a ‘reasoned stance’ in ethical matters by ‘cultivating the ability to compare, weigh and evaluate different ethical perspectives’. Several skills are needed, such as postponing judgment and critically and carefully considering one’s actions and judgments (Rossouw, 2002). In addition, one needs to be able to imagine the moral consequences of one’s actions and possible alternatives (Callahan, 1980). The last cognitive element of moral judgment requires the ability to actually make the final informed judgment about what is ‘the right thing to do’ in a situation (Oprins et al., 2011; Rest & Narváez, 1994). This can also be called ‘moral decision making’ (Rossouw, 2002). For the second individual element (attitude), we present these relevant elements: moral motivation and courage, moral sensitivity and tolerance, and moral responsibility and accountability. In general, moral motivation requires considering the moral components of situations. This leads to actual moral motivation2 when the motivating force of normative judgments turns those judgments into actions. Hence, moral motivation is related to: moral courage, which entails acting on moral convictions (Rossouw, 2002), even when it is not comfortable, or self-serving to do so. By having and showing moral courage one shows the ‘determination to improve the morality of their (professional) behavior’ (Rossouw, 2002). In addition, you need moral sensitivity to consider the possible consequences of actions (Rossouw, 2002). This is closely related to the earlier mentioned ‘moral imagination’ as part of moral reasoning. However, sensitivity in the attitude of the professional is the art of putting yourself in other people’s shoes; perspective-taking. And to show tolerance in how you handle it when points of view differ from yours. In addition, an individual ought to be morally responsible for showing exemplary behavior (moral responsibility), 2 Moral motivation, according to Rest & Narvaez (1994), shows that one prioritizes moral components of a judgment or a decision over other aspects.

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