Chapter 1 Introduction Part I Chapter 2 Cardiac disease, depressive symptoms, and incident stroke in an Elderly Population Chapter 3 Depression in context of low neuroticism is a risk factor for stroke: a 9-year cohort study Chapter 4 The interaction between cerebrovascular disease and neuroticism in late-life depression: a cross-sectional study Part II Chapter 5 Apathy in remitted depression is not related to vascular risk. Chapter 6 Empirical support for the vascular apathy hypothesis: a structured review. Chapter 7 Strengths and weaknesses of the vascular apathy hypothesis: a narrative review. Chapter 8 Summary and general discussion. Appendices Nederlandse wetenschappelijke samenvatting Dankwoord Curriculum vitae 10 28 44 60 80 100 120 142 158 174 177