1 | 13 Synthesis et al., 2017; Eime et al., 2013; Reiner et al., 2013; Seippel, 2006). This makes sport participation an important social phenomenon. Not surprisingly, inclusion and inequality in sport participation is a central theme in the field of sport sociology for some time now (Breuer & Wicker, 2008). Answering questions related to this theme, such as “who practises sport and who doesn’t?”, “when do changes in sport participation within the life course occur?” and “how is sport participation affected by major life events?”, is both scientifically and socially relevant. It is meaningful from a sociological perspective to gain more insight in this social phenomenon. Furthermore, it is important from a practical point of view, for evidence based political advice, sport policy development and sport development planning. Individual determinants of sport participation Prior research shows a wide range of individual determinants of sport participation (for an overview see, for example, Breuer et al., 2010; Foster et al., 2005; Humphreys & Ruseski, 2010). Generally, men are more likely to participate in sport than women (Farrell & Shields, 2002; Hartmann-Tews, 2006; Van Tuyckom, 2011). The Netherlands, however, is one of the few countries where this is not the case (Hartmann-Tews, 2006; Scheerder & Breedveld, 2004; Tiessen-Raaphorst et al., 2014, 2019). According to some studies, Dutch woman are even more likely to participate in sport than Dutch men (Hovemann & Wicker, 2009; Van Tuyckom et al., 2010). Yet, some aspects of sport involvement are in favour of Dutch men, such as duration and time spent on sport, participation in team and competitive sports and sport club membership (Scheerder & Breedveld, 2004; Tiessen-Raaphorst, 2015; TiessenRaaphorst et al., 2014, 2019). Studies also point at a positive effect of human capital and socio-economic status (in terms of educational attainment, household income and/or occupation), and to a negative effect of migration background (or ethnicity) on sport participation. In the Netherlands, individuals who are higher educated, have a higher income and those who are native citizens, are more likely to practise sport than their counterparts who are lower educated, have a lower income, and those with a migration background, respectively (e.g., TiessenRaaphorst, 2015; Tiessen-Raaphorst et al., 2014, 2019; Van der Poel et al., 2018). These findings are also valid for many other countries in Europe (Breuer & Wicker, 2008; Downward, 2007; European Commission, 2018; Hovemann &