Thesis Erik van der Graaff

General introduction ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ ’Šƒ•‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™Ǧ–Š”‘—‰ŠǤ Š‡…‘…‹‰ ’Šƒ•‡ •–ƒ”–• ȋˆ‘” ƒ ”‹‰Š– Šƒ†‡† ’Žƒ›‡”Ȍ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ’‹–…Š‡” •–ƒ†‹‰ ™‹–Š Š‹• ‘Ǧ†‘‹ƒ– ȋŽ‡ˆ–Ȍ •Š‘—Ž†‡” towards the catcher, facing third base. From this position, the pitcher starts the ™‹†Ǧ—’ ȋ ‹‰—”‡ ʹ ȌǤ Š‡ ƒ ’‹–…Š‡” ‹• ƒ‹‰ –Š‡ •–‡’ ™‹–Š Š‹• ȋŽ‡ˆ–Ȍ ˆ”‘– ˆ‘‘–ǡ –Š‡ ’‡Ž˜‹• ‹• –”ƒ•Žƒ–‡† ‹ –Š‡ –Š”‘™‹‰ †‹”‡…–‹‘Ǥ ˆ–‡” ˆ”‘– ˆ‘‘–…‘–ƒ…– ȋ ‹‰—”‡ ʹ Ȍǡ –Š‡ ˆ”‘– ˆ‘‘– •‹†‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’‡Ž˜‹• •Ž‘™• †‘™…‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž› ƒ† „‡…‘‡• ƒ ’‹˜‘– ’‘‹– ȋ ‡”‘›‡” ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͳͲȌǤ Š‡ –”ƒ•Žƒ–‹‘ ƒ† •—„•‡“—‡– ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ ‹ the transversal plane of the pelvis are employed together to initiate a rotation ‘ˆ –Š‡ –Š‘”ƒš ȋ ‘„„ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͳͲǢ –‘††‡ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲͳǢ ‹‰Š– ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲͶȌǤ Š‡ …‘…‹‰ ’Šƒ•‡ ‡†• ™Š‡ –Š‡ •Š‘—Ž†‡” ‹• ‹ ƒš‹ƒŽ ‡š–‡”ƒŽ ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ ȋ ǡ ϐ‹‰—”‡ ʹ ȌǤ —”‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ ’Šƒ•‡ǡ –Š‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ‘ˆ –Š‡ „ƒŽŽ ‹• ‡Šƒ…‡† through a sequential rotation of body segments. The acceleration phase ends ™Š‡ –Š‡ „ƒŽŽ ‹• ”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡† ȋ ǡ ‹‰—”‡ ʹ ȌǤ Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™Ǧ–Š”‘—‰Š ȋ ‹‰—”‡ ʹ Ϊ Ȍ ‹• the phase in which the arm and the body of the pitcher are decelerated after ball ”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡Ǥ  –Š‹• ’Šƒ•‡ ‹– ‹• ‹’‘”–ƒ– –‘ †‡…‡Ž‡”ƒ–‡ ™‹–Š ƒ ϐŽ—‡– ‘–‹‘ ‹ ‘”†‡” to spread the stress of decelerating the high speeds over a longer trajectory. Pitching and injuries Unfortunately, throwing at high velocities is strongly associated with throwing injuries. Especially the throwing arm is prone to injuries. The dominant shoulder ȋ͵ͳΨȌ ƒ† ‡Ž„‘™ ȋʹ͸ΨȌ ƒ”‡ –Š‡ Œ‘‹–• –Šƒ– ϐ‹‰—”‡ ‘•– ’”‡†‘‹ƒ–Ž› ƒ‘‰ „ƒ•‡„ƒŽŽ ’‹–…Š‡”•ǯ ‹Œ—”‹‡• ȋ –™ƒ–‡”ǡ ͳͻ͹ͻǢ ‘–‡ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͳ͸Ǣ Ž‡‹•‹‰ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ͳͻͻͷǢ —–…Š‹•‘ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲ͵Ǣ ‘•‡” ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͳͳȌǤ ™‘…‘‘ ‘™ ‹Œ—”‹‡• ƒ”‡ –Š‡ ǮŽ‹––Ž‡ Ž‡ƒ‰—‡ •Š‘—Ž†‡”ǯǡ ™Š‹…Š…ƒ „‡ †‡•…”‹„‡† ƒ• ƒ ‹ϐŽƒƒ–‹‘ ‘” †‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‘š‹ƒŽ Š—‡”ƒŽ ‡’‹’Š›•‹• †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‰”‘™–Š ‘ˆ ›‘—–Š ’Žƒ›‡”• ȋ –™ƒ–‡”ǡ ͳͻ͹ͻȌǡ ƒ† –Š‡ Ǯ ‘›Ǧ ‘Šǯ ‹Œ—”› ȋ ”‹…•‘ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͳͶȌǡ ƒ –‡ƒ” ‘ˆ –Š‡ —Žƒ”…‘ŽŽƒ–‡”ƒŽ Ž‹‰ƒ‡– ȋ Ȍ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡Ž„‘™Ǥ Š‡ Žƒ––‡” ‹Œ—”› ‹• …ƒŽŽ‡† ƒˆ–‡” ‘› ‘Šǡ ™Š‘ ™ƒ• –Š‡ ϐ‹”•– ’Žƒ›‡” –‘ ”‡…‡‹˜‡ ”‡…‘•–”—…–‹˜‡ •—”‰‡”› –‘ Š‹• ‹ ͳͻ͹ͶǤ ‘ ’”‡˜‡– ƒ ‡’‹†‡‹…‰”‘™–Š ‘ˆ ‹Œ—”‹‡•ǡ ‹– Šƒ• „‡‡ •—‰‰‡•–‡† –Šƒ– –”ƒ‹‹‰ ƒ ’”‘’‡” –Š”‘™‹‰ –‡…Š‹“—‡ ‹• ”‡“—‹”‡† ȋ ƒ˜‹• ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲͻǢ Ž‡‹•‹‰ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲͻȌǤ Throwing fast Š‡ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ ˆƒ•–„ƒŽŽ –Š”‘™‹‰ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ‹ –Š‡ ʹͲͳ͸ ”‡‰—Žƒ” •‡ƒ•‘ ™ƒ• ͻ͵ ’Šǡ ƒ ‘”‡ –Šƒ ͵ ’Š ‹…”‡ƒ•‡…‘’ƒ”‡† –‘ –Š‡ ʹͲͲʹ •‡ƒ•‘ ȋ –ƒ–…ƒ•–ȌǤ  –Š‡ ʹͲͳ͹ •‡ƒ•‘ǡ ‘‡ ’Žƒ›‡”ǡ ”‘Ž†‹• Šƒ’ƒǡ ‡˜‡ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡† ‘˜‡” ͳͲͲ ’Š ˆ‘” –Š‡ ™Š‘Ž‡ •‡ƒ•‘Ǥ ‘ –Š”‘™ ƒ– –Š‡•‡ Š‹‰Š ˜‡Ž‘…‹–‹‡•ǡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰ ƒ good and safe throwing technique is essential. The question is, however, what a proper technique is for repeatedly throwing fastballs without becoming ‹Œ—”‡†Ǥ  –Š‡ ’ƒ•–ǡ ƒ ˜ƒ”‹‡–› ‘ˆ •–—†‹‡• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ’—„Ž‹•Š‡† –Šƒ– ‡šƒ‹‡† –Š‡ „‹‘‡…Šƒ‹…• ‘ˆ „ƒ•‡„ƒŽŽ ’‹–…Š‹‰ ȋ •…ƒ‹ŽŽƒ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ͳͻͻͺǢ Ž‡‹•‹‰ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ͳͻͻͷǢ ‹••‡ ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲ͹Ǣ ƒ’’ƒ• ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ͳͻͺͷȌǤ —„‡” ‘ˆ •–—†‹‡• ˆ‘…—••‡† ‘ –Š‡

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